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    TCP/IP
    OS, OS » Windows
    : dimon, : 10 2010

    TCP/IP .

    ping TCP/IP.
    (ICMP Echo-Request) ICMP (ICMP Echo-Reply). (RTT, . Round Trip Time) (RTT) , .
    Wikipedia


    C:\>ping ya.ru

    ya.ru [77.88.21.3] 32 :

    77.88.21.3: =32 =35 TTL=53
    77.88.21.3: =32 =35 TTL=53
    77.88.21.3: =32 =35 TTL=53
    77.88.21.3: =32 =37 TTL=53

    Ping 77.88.21.3:
    : = 4, = 4, = 0 (0% ),
    - :
    = 35, = 37 , = 35

    C:\>


    - .



    ARP IP- .

    C:\>arp -a

    : 192.168.1.2 --- 0x2
    IP 񠠠
    192.168.1.1 00-24-01-58-c9-0b

    C:\>


    :

    -a - ARP-, . inet_addr, IP . ARP, .

    -s - internet inet_addr eth_addr. 6 ( ), . .



    ipconfig TCP/IP.

    C:\>ipconfig

    IP Windows


    LAN - Ethernet :

    DNS- . . :
    IP-. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.2
    . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
    . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1

    C:\>


    :

    /all - . MAC- .
    /renew - IP- .
    /flushdns - DNS.



    nbtstat , NetBT.

    C:\>nbtstat -a 192.168.1.2

    LAN:
    IP : [192.168.1.2] : []

    NetBIOS-


    ----------------------------------------------------
    COMP <00>頠
    MSHOME <00>ࠠ
    COMP <20>頠
    MSHOME <1E>ࠠ
    MSHOME <1D>頠
    ..__MSBROWSE__.<01>ࠠ

    (MAC) = 00-01-72-11-00-12

    C:\>




    netstat TCP/IP TCP/IP.

    C:\>netstat



    񠠠 񠠠
    TCPcomp:1204aldebaran.relax.ru:5222ESTABLISHED
    TCPcomp:1367mrim35.mail.ru:2041ESTABLISHED

    ...

    TCPcomp:5152localhost:1883 CLOSE_WAIT
    TCPcomp:5354localhost:1093 ESTABLISHED

    C:\>


    () .



    route .

    :

    PRINT -
    ADD -
    DELETE -
    CHANGE -

    C:\>route print
    ==================================================

    0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface
    0x2 ...00 0c 76 b2 e0 6a ...... Realtek RTL8139 Family PCI Fast Ethernet NIC -
    ==================================================
    ==================================================
    :
    񠠠 蠠 ࠠ
    81.16.94.90255.255.255.255127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 50
    81.25.0.186255.255.255.25581.16.94.90 81.16.94.90 1
    192.168.1.255255.255.255.255192.168.1.2 192.168.1.2 20
    255.255.255.255255.255.255.25581.16.94.90 81.16.94.90 1
    255.255.255.255255.255.255.255192.168.1.2 192.168.1.2 1
    : 81.16.94.90
    ==================================================
    :


    C:\>




    hostname .

    C:\>hostname
    comp

    C:\>




    tracert .

    C:\>tracert ya.ru

    ya.ru [93.158.134.3]
    30:

    122 ms20 ms20 msPPPoE.tts.nov.ru [81.25.0.186]
    220 ms22 ms21 msge-0-1-v59.1g.c7206.rspd.novg [81.25.9.71]
    321 ms21 ms22 msge-0-1-0-v997.1g.m320-1-novg.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.214.61]
    428 ms28 ms30 msxe-3-0-3.10g.t1600-1-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.194.21]
    528 ms29 ms30 msae1.20g.t1600-2-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.194.58]
    622 ms25 ms23 msae1.30g.mx960-1-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.198.250]
    725 ms25 ms23 msas13238-yandex.gateway.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.214.102]
    835 ms33 ms34 msaluminium-vlan934.yandex.net [213.180.208.12]
    937 ms37 ms35 mswww.yandex.ru [93.158.134.3]

    .

    C:\>


    IP-:

    C:\Users\tumanov>tracert 192.168.1.188

    testcomp1 [192.168.1.188]
    30:

    1 1 ms<1 񠠠<1 testcomp1 [192.168.1.188]

    .

    C:\>




    PathPing , , .

    C:\>pathping ya.ru

    ya.ru [77.88.21.3]
    30:
    0comp [81.16.94.90]
    1PPPoE.tts.nov.ru [81.25.0.186]
    2ge-0-1-v59.1g.c7206.rspd.novg [81.25.9.71]
    3ge-0-1-0-v997.1g.m320-1-novg.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.214.61]
    4xe-3-0-3.10g.t1600-1-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.194.21]
    5ae1.20g.t1600-2-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.194.58]
    6ae1.30g.mx960-1-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.198.250]
    7as13238-yandex.gateway.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.214.102]
    8aluminium-vlan934.yandex.net [213.180.208.12]
    9gallium-vlan901.yandex.net [77.88.56.126]
    10l3-s1100-s900.yandex.net [213.180.213.39]
    11toyota-vlan4.yandex.net [213.180.210.181]
    12www.yandex.ru [77.88.21.3]

    : 300 . ...

    ꠠRTT ./. % ./.%
    0 comp [81.16.94.90]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    1 92񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%PPPoE.tts.nov.ru [81.25.0.186]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    2 93񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%ge-0-1-v59.1g.c7206.rspd.novg [81.25.9.71]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    3 94񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%ge-0-1-0-v997.1g.m320-1-novg.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.214.61]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    4 94񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%xe-3-0-3.10g.t1600-1-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.194.21]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    5 97񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%ae1.20g.t1600-2-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.194.58]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    6 95񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%ae1.30g.mx960-1-210.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.198.250]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    7--- 100/ 100 =100% 100/ 100 =100%as13238-yandex.gateway.nwtelecom.ru [212.48.214.102]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    8 99񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%aluminium-vlan934.yandex.net [213.180.208.12]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    9109񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%gallium-vlan901.yandex.net [77.88.56.126]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    10109񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%l3-s1100-s900.yandex.net [213.180.213.39]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    11113񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%toyota-vlan4.yandex.net [213.180.210.181]
    0/ 100 =0% |
    12116񠠠 0/ 100 =0% 0/ 100 =0%www.yandex.ru [77.88.21.3]

    .

    C:\>




    nslookup (. name server lookup ) , DNS ( , DNS-). . Ÿ host dig. BIND ( UNIX-).
    Wikipedia


    C:\>nslookup ya.ru
    *** Can't find server name for address 192.168.1.1: No response from server
    Server:ns.tts.nov.ru
    Address:81.25.0.33

    Non-authoritative answer:
    Name:ya.ru
    Addresses:213.180.204.3, 77.88.21.3, 87.250.250.3, 87.250.251.3
    93.158.134.3


    C:\>

     
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